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Innovation and Cybersecurity 

Information applications now permeate every aspect of human activity, including a revolution in military and national security capabilities. As the global "cyber commons" has expanded, the private sector and governments have become increasingly interdependent. At the same time, rising rates of computer crime and sophisticated malicious software threaten the safety and reliability of information systems. The scale and sophistication of cyber-attacks such as networked viruses, botnets, and phishing scams continue to escalate.

There is no off-the-shelf technical or social science knowledge that can simply be combined to provide effective solutions to the threats while also protecting the openness and reliability of information networks. Innovation requires scientists and engineers who also understand the way cyber criminals and terrorists operate, how the interests of private enterprise and government differ, and the context of international technical, commercial, and military competition.

IGCC and partners at the Naval War College and the School of Global Policy and Strategy at UC San Diego have been leaders in advancing understanding in this area, particularly where China and the United States are concerned. 


Comparative Industrial Policy in the Cybersecurity Industry: Policies, Drivers, and International Implications
September 14, 2017
UC San Diego

Agenda [pdf]
Participants [pdf]

China and Cybersecurity
April 11–12, 2012
UC San Diego

Agenda [pdf]

The Political Economy of Information Security in China
April 9–10, 2012
UC San Diego

Agenda [pdf]

Cybersecurity Research across the University of California
November 22, 2011
UC San Diego

Agenda and Participant Biographies [pdf]



Working Papers and Policy Briefs

Haggard, Stephan,  and Jon. R. Lindsay. North Korea and the Sony Hack: Exporting Instability through Cyberspace. Asia Pacific Issues, No. 117 (May 2015). 

Lindsay, Jon R. "Exaggerating the Chinese Cyber Threat." Policy Brief, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, May 2015.


Lindsay, Jon, Tai Ming Cheung, and Derek Reveron, eds. China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain (London: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Journal Articles

Links to journal articles are provided as a courtesy. Your access will depend on your academic institution's subscription policy.

Lindsay, Jon R. “The Impact of China on Cybersecurity: Fiction and Friction.” International Security 39, No. 3 (2014/15).

Lindsay, Jon R. “Stuxnet and the Limits of Cyber Warfare,” Security Studies 22, No. 3 (2013): 365–404.

Lindsay, Jon R., and Lucas Kello. “Correspondence: A Cyber Disagreement.International Security 39, No. 2 (2014): 181‒92.


Lindsay, Jon R. "The Real Cyberespionage Rule: Don't Get Caught." APPS Policy Forum, January 2016.

Lindsay, Jon R., Tai Ming Cheung, and Derek Reveron. "Will China and America Clash in Cyberspace?" The National Interest, April 12, 2015.

Lindsay, Jon R. China and Cybersecurity: Political, Economic, and Strategic Dimensions. Report from the April 2012 IGCC conferences.