Innovation and Cybersecurity 

Information applications permeate every aspect of human activity, including a revolution in military and national security capabilities. As our cyber infrastructure has expanded, the private sector and government have become increasingly interdependent.

The scale and sophistication of cyber-attacks such as networked viruses, botnets, and phishing scams continue to escalate. There is no off-the-shelf technical or social science knowledge that can simply be combined to provide effective solutions to the threats.

Innovation requires scientists and engineers who also understand the way cyber criminals and terrorists operate, why business and government have difficulty in sharing information and collaborating on cybersecurity, and the context of international technical, commercial, and military competition. It also requires creative social scientists who have a grounding in computer science and engineering.



Working Papers and Policy Briefs

Haggard, Stephan,  and Jon. R. Lindsay. North Korea and the Sony Hack: Exporting Instability Through Cyberspace. Asia Pacific Issues, No. 117 (May 2015). 

Lindsay, Jon R. "Exaggerating the Chinese Cyber Threat." Policy Brief, Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs, Harvard Kennedy School, May 2015.


Lindsay, Jon, Tai Ming Cheung, and Derek Reveron, eds. China and Cybersecurity: Espionage, Strategy, and Politics in the Digital Domain (London: Oxford University Press, 2015)

Journal Articles

Links to journal articles are provided as a courtesy. Your access will depend on your academic institution's subscription policy.

Lindsay, Jon R. “The Impact of China on Cybersecurity: Fiction and Friction.” International Security 39, No. 3 (2014/15).

Lindsay, Jon R. “Stuxnet and the Limits of Cyber Warfare,” Security Studies 22, No. 3 (2013): 365–404.

Lindsay, Jon R., and Lucas Kello. “Correspondence: A Cyber Disagreement.International Security 39, No. 2 (2014): 181‒92.


Lindsay, Jon R. "The Real Cyberespionage Rule: Don't Get Caught." APPS Policy Forum, January 2016.

Lindsay, Jon R., Tai Ming Cheung, and Derek Reveron. "Will China and America Clash in Cyberspace?" The National Interest, April 12, 2015.